Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Projects and researches
Published: 2021-12-20

Risky Parental Practices and Their Implications in Adult Psychopathology

University of Bucharest
risky parenting etiology of perfectionism depression anxiety


There are many ways in which an individual may fail as a parent. Most parents have good intentions, but that’s the exact reason why there’s an urgent need to clarify good parenting practices. This paper will look at risky parenting practices (e.g., guilt-inducing criticism) and their relationship with psychopathology (depression and anxiety, in this case) using socially prescribed perfectionism as a mediator. All eight mediations turned out to be statistically significant with six out of eight analyses being full mediations. Also, the relationships between the facets of perfectionism, depression, and anxiety are consistent with the findings of other studies up until this point. Considering the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and psychopathology, practical implications are discussed.


  1. American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. Ammerman, B. A., & Brown, S. (2018). The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism in the Relationship between Parental Expressed Emotion and NSSI. Current Psychology, 37(1), 325–333. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental Psychological Control: Revisiting a Neglected Construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296–3319.
  2. Besharat, M. A., Atari, M., & Mirjalili, R. S. (2019). Transdiagnostic Processes in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Worry, Cognitive Avoidance, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Metacognitive Beliefs. Practice in Clinical Psychology, 7(4), 281–290.
  4. Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment.
  5. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3–21. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334.
  7. Dahlenburg, S. C., Gleaves, D. H., & Hutchinson, A. D. (2019). Anorexia nervosa and perfectionism: A metaanalysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 52(3), 219–229.
  8. Dimaggio, G., & Attinà, G. (2012). Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for narcissistic personality disorder and associated perfectionism. Journal of Clinical
  9. Psychology, 68(8), 922–934.
  11. Egan, S. J., Wade, T. D., & Shafran, R. (2011). Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: A clinical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(2), 203–212.
  12. Emery, R. E. (1982). Interparental conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin, 92(2), 310– 330.
  13. Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required Sample Size to Detect the Mediated Effect. Psychological Science,
  14. (3), 233–239.
  15. 2007.01882.x
  16. Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (1997). Perfectionism in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(4), 291–296.
  18. Gerlsma, C., de Ruiter, N. M. P., & Kingma, W. (2014). Mood dependence of perceived criticism: A significant null finding.
  19. Psychiatry Research, 220(3), 1102–1105.
  21. Gillan, C. M., Fineberg, N. A., & Robbins, T. W. (2017). A trans-diagnostic perspective on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Medicine, 47(9), 1528–1548.
  22. Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (1990). Marital conflict and children’s adjustment: A cognitive-contextual framework.
  23. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 267–290.
  24. Halmi, K. A., Tozzi, F., Thornton, L. M., Crow, S., Fichter, M. M., Kaplan, A. S., Keel, P., Klump, K. L., Lilenfeld, L. R., Mitchell, J. E., Plotnicov, K. H., Pollice, C., Rotondo, A., Strober, M., Woodside, D. B., Berrettini, W. H., Kaye, W. H., & Bulik, C. M. (2005). The relation among perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessivecompulsive disorder in individuals with eating disorders. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 38(4), 371–374.
  25. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 456–470.
  27. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (2002). Perfectionism and stress processes in psychopathology. In Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 255–284). American
  28. Psychological Association.
  29. Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., Sherry, S. B., & Caelian, C. (2006). Trait Perfectionism Dimensions and Suicidal Behavior. In Cognition and suicide: Theory, research, and therapy (pp. 215–235). American Psychological Association.
  31. IBM Corp. (2016). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0: Vol. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
  32. Jahromi, F. G., Naziri, G., & Barzegar, M. (2012). The relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and depression: The mediating role of maladaptive cognitive schemas. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32, 141–147. Kaslow, N. J., Deering, C. G., & Racusin, G. R. (1994). Depressed children and their families. Clinical Psychology
  33. Review, 14(1), 39–59.
  34. (94)90047-7
  35. Limburg, K., Watson, H. J., Hagger, M. S., & Egan, S. J. (2017). The Relationship Between Perfectionism and Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical
  36. Psychology, 73(10), 1301–1326.
  38. Lundh, L.-G., Saboonchi, F., & Wångby, M. (2008). The Role of Personal Standards in Clinically Significant Perfectionism. A Person-Oriented Approach to the Study of Patterns of
  39. Perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(3), 333–350.
  40. Macedo, A., Soares, M. J., Amaral, A. P., Nogueira, V., Madeira, N., Roque, C., Marques, M., Maia, B., Bos, S., Valente, J., & Pereira, A. T. (2015). Repetitive negative thinking mediates the association between perfectionism and psychological distress. Personality and Individual
  41. Differences, 72, 220–224.
  42. Mageau, G. A., Ranger, F., Joussemet, M., Koestner, R., Moreau, E., & Forest, J. (2015). Validation of the Perceived Parental Autonomy Support Scale (P-PASS). Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 47(3), 251–262.
  44. Masland, S. R., Drabu, S., & Hooley, J. M. (2019). Is perceived criticism an independent construct? Evidence for divergent validity across two samples. Journal of Family
  45. Psychology, 33(2), 133–142.
  47. Merrick, M. T., Ports, K. A., Ford, D. C., Afifi, T. O., Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2017). Unpacking the impact of
  48. adverse childhood experiences on adult mental health. Child
  49. Abuse & Neglect, 69, 10–19.
  50. Missildine, W. H. (1963). Your Inner Child of the Past. Simon and Schuster.
  51. Ong, C. W., Lee, E. B., Krafft, J., Terry, C. L., Barrett, T. S., Levin, M. E., & Twohig, M. P. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for clinical perfectionism. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and
  52. Related Disorders, 22, 100444.
  53. Osman, A., Wong, J. L., Bagge, C. L., Freedenthal, S., Gutierrez, P. M., & Lozano, G. (2012). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21): Further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(12), 1322–1338.
  54. Overholser, J., & Dimaggio, G. (2020). Struggling with perfectionism: When good enough is not good enough. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 76(11), 2019–2027.
  55. Pacht, A. R. (1984). Reflections on perfection. American
  56. Psychologist, 39(4), 386–390.
  57. X.39.4.386
  58. Parker, W. D. (1997). An Empirical Typology of Perfectionism in Academically Talented Children. American Educational Research Journal, 34(3), 545–562.
  59. Podina, I. R. (2020). Concluding commentary: Treating perfectionism transdiagnostically with an eye on the future.
  60. Journal of Clinical Psychology.
  62. Rapp, A. M., Chavira, D. A., Sugar, C. A., & Asarnow, J. R. (2021). Incorporating family factors into treatment planning for adolescent depression: Perceived parental criticism predicts longitudinal symptom trajectory in the Youth Partners in Care trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 278, 46–53. Repetti, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Seeman, T. E. (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 330–366.
  63. Santanello, A. W., & Gardner, F. L. (2007). The Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationship Between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Worry. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(3), 319–332.
  65. Slavich, G. M., & Irwin, M. R. (2014). From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: A social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 140(3), 774–815.
  66. Smith, M. M., Sherry, S. B., Chen, S., Saklofske, D. H., Mushquash, C., Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2018). The perniciousness of perfectionism: A meta-analytic review of the perfectionism-suicide relationship. Journal of
  67. Personality, 86(3), 522–542.
  68. Smith, M. M., Sherry, S. B., Vidovic, V., Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (2020). Why does perfectionism confer risk for depressive symptoms? A meta-analytic test of the mediating role of stress and social disconnection. Journal of Research in Personality, 86, 103954.
  70. Stoeber, J., & Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review: An Official Journal of the Society for Personality and Social
  71. Psychology, Inc, 10(4), 295–319.
  72. The jamovi project. (2021). Jamovi (Version 1.6) [Computer Software]. Retrieved from Https://Www.Jamovi.Org. Wagner, B. M. (1997). Family risk factors for child and adolescent suicidal behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 121(2), 246–298. Young, J. E. (1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach, 3rd ed (pp. x, 83). Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.
  73. Zuroff, D. C., Blatt, S. J., Sotsky, S. M., Krupnick, J. L., Martin, D. J., Sanislow, C. A., & Simmens, S. (2000). Relation of therapeutic alliance and perfectionism to outcome in brief outpatient treatment of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 114–124.

How to Cite

Năstase, A.-C. (2021). Risky Parental Practices and Their Implications in Adult Psychopathology . Studia Doctoralia, 12(2), 100–109.